Protesters from the Generation Identitaire group burned tyres and clashed with police after setting up barricades emblazoned with their logo and the slogans “go home” and “no way”.
Police arrested 14 members of the group and seized one of their vehicles while dispersing the demonstration on Saturday morning.
Generation Identitaire claimed 130 people joined the protest and blocked three bridges, while officials put numbers at 80 and said only two were barricaded.
The group said it was aiming to prevent refugees entering the town centre, hailing the “martyrdom” of Calais.
“Once again, the socialist regime has chosen illegal immigrants over the defenders of Calais,” a statement said.
“The socialist regime, like the illegitimate ‘European’ commissioners, must understand that the people will not stand for it anymore and that as long as they will refuse to re-establish the borders – both national and European – they will erect barricades.
“The only worthwhile ‘relocation’ of migrants is back to their country of origin.
“This is our home: Calais for the Calaisiens, Europe for the Europeans!”